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Counterclockwise from top these nine planetary boundaries are:

  • climate change
  • biosphere integrity (functional and genetic) land-system change
  • freshwater use
  • biogeochemical flows (nitrogen and phosphorus)
  • ocean acidification
  • atmospheric aerosol pollution
  • stratospheric ozone depletion
  • novel chemicals release (including radioactive materials, heavy metals, plastics, and more).

Together, we need to ensure the stability of the nine planetary processes to maintain the Earth’s ecosystems, atmosphere, and oceans in the delicate balance that has so far allowed humans to thrive. However, these are also the very biosystems that our human activities have impacted most profoundly through climate change.

Citation: (J. Lokrantz/Azote based on Steffen et al., 2015)

Citation: ("About Doughnut Economics | DEAL", 2021)

First published in an Oxfam report by Kate Raworth in 2012, the Doughnut concept expands on the Planetary Boundaries Framework vision and looks at how humanity can thrive in the 21st century.

The Doughnut Economics is the supporting economics model that explores the mindset and approaches that we need to help get us there. Explore the Seven Ways to Think Like a 21st-Century Economist in the below animations!

Get Animated! Introducing the Seven Ways

Citation: ("Get Animated! Introducing the Seven Ways | DEAL", 2021)